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Forest Invasivesbreadcrumb separatorMeet the Speciesbreadcrumb separatorInsectsbreadcrumb separatorEuropean Gypsy Moth

European Gypsy Moth

French common name: Spongieuse

Scientific name: Lymantria dispar

Order: Lepidoptera  

Family: Lymantriidae 


The European gypsy moth (EGM; Lymantria dispar dispar) is native to Europe, and is currently established in northeastern United States and eastern Canada (portions of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia). The larvae (caterpillars) feed on crown foliage of a wide range of hardwood and some softwood trees, which makes gypsy moth a defoliating forest pest of concern.

Note: This profile refers to the European gypsy moth, EGM. For information on the Asian gypsy moth, click here. The Asian gypsy moth (AGM; Lymantria dispar asiatica) is not established in Canada, but incursions have occurred previously in British Columbia. AGM threatens the northwestern states of the United States and the pacific provinces of Canada.


Photo: USDA APHIS PPQ, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org 

Adult male and female gypsy moths


Quick Tips:

  • Examine your outdoor household items on a regular basis during the spring and summer months. Items such as furniture, camping equipment, trailers and firewood can harbor gypsy moth egg masses.

  • If caterpillars or larvae are found, wear gloves when handling the insects, as their hairs can cause skin irritation on humans.

  • If eggs are detected, scrape the fuzzy, tan coloured masses off of the equipment they are affixed to, and destroy them immediately by crushing the eggs, or by submerging the eggs into a bucket filled with water and household bleach or soap for at least two days. After two days, discard the solution and egg mixture.

  • Never move firewood.


Photo: USDA

Gypsy moth egg masses found on the wheel and edge of the lawn mower 

Learn about the Gypsy Moth

The Insect

Physical Description

Eggs: tanned yellow, covered with fuzz and found as “egg masses” in the protected areas of trees and outdoor items such as, vehicles, garbage cans, furniture and children’s toys.  


Photo:  Milan Zubrik, Forest Research Institute - Slovakia, Bugwood.org

Gypsy moth egg mass

Larvae: up to 6 cm in length, covered with hairs. The caterpillar is characterized by five pairs of blue dots and six pairs of red dots that run down its back.


Photo:  Jon Yuschock, Bugwood.org

Gypsy moth caterpillar (larvae)

Pupal Stage: larval caterpillars transition to become winged moths. During this stage the skin of the larva hardens and metamorphosis takes place inside the dark brown shell. 

 
Photo: Daniel Herms, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org

Gypsy moth pupae


Adults: 
winged moths.  Male gypsy moths are brown in colour and have feathery antennae. Females are beige in colour and cannot fly. The adult gypsy moths cannot feed due to the lack of a mouthpart, leaving them only about two weeks to mate and produce eggs before they die. 

 
Photo:  Hannes Lemme, Bavarian State Research Centre for Agriculture, Bugwood.org

Female adult gypsy moth laying eggs 


Life Cycle

The gypsy moth female lays between 500 to 1000 eggs in tree bark crevices. The eggs are covered with hairs from the female’s abdomen. The eggs hatch in spring (April), and the emerging larvae from the eggs climb up the trees to feed on leaves. The majority of the feeding occurs during the night. The larval stage lasts for approximately 40 days. At the end of this stage, the larvae seek safe shelter to pupate. In early summer (June - July), the larvae enter a transitional stage for 10 to 14 days in which the larvae transform into adult gypsy moths. Adults have less than two weeks to mate and reproduce before they die.

Host Trees

The gypsy moth has over 300 known host plant species, and about 150 of them are considered favoured hosts. The favourability of a forest species influences the severity and longevity of a gypsy moth infestation. As a caterpillar, gypsy moths feed primarily on hardwood trees, and may feed on softwood trees. Some favoured host tree species include:

Oak                (Quercus spp.)

Maple            (Acer spp.)

Birch              (Betula)

Alder             (Alanus spp.)

Hawthorne  (Crataegus spp.)

Click here for a full list of gypsy moth favoured tree hosts. 


Photo: William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, Bugwood.org

Infested broadleaf trees

Signs & Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of European gypsy moth include:

  • Egg masses found on tree bark and outdoor objects.
  • Leaves with holes or completely defoliated trees. Defoliation will result in the dieback of twigs and branches, and will make affected trees vulnerable to disease and other pests as they spend their energy reserves to regrow leaves in mid-summer.


Photo: Tim Tigner, Virginia Department of Forestry, Bugwood.org


Distribution

The gypsy moth is native to Europe, Asia, and north Africa. European gypsy moth was introduced to North America 130 years ago, and has since been detected in states in northeastern U.S.A. and in portions of the eastern Canadian provinces of  Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia.

The long distance spread of the gypsy moth has been largely attributed to the movement of firewood, as well as outdoor recreational and household articles; public awareness could significantly reduce and limit the spread of gypsy moth to new areas.


The map below is the EDDMapS (Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System) Ontario distribution map for the European gypsy moth as of May 2017.  To see the current EDDMapS distribution map, click on the map below.



Map:  EDDMapS. 2017. Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Available online at http://www.eddmaps.org/; last accessed May 18, 2017.

Regulation

Impacts

Gypsy moths are most destructive in their larval stage - as caterpillars - stripping away foliage from a broad variety of trees. Repeated defoliation stresses trees and can lead to mortality, especially in urban or drought-stricken areas, and can weaken tree regeneration due to impacted seed production and root sprouting.

An estimated 595 million hectares of North America are considered climatically suitable for the establishment of gypsy moth populations (Gray, 2004). The efforts to control and manage the pathways of gypsy moths is crucial to mitigate the possible economic, ecological, and social impacts on potential areas of spread.


Economic Impacts

A gypsy moth infestation can defoliate a broad range of tree species, impacting the aesthetics of a forest. In urban areas, this can impact property values and impose costs for tree removal and replacement. In addition, tree defoliation can negatively affect tourism. 

The gypsy moth was estimated to have caused the loss of roughly $120 million in residential property value per annum in the US from 1998 to 2007, and $298 million in US federal expenditure targeted at gypsy moth for the same ten-year period (Aukema, 2011). The amount for the US federal expenditure included suppression, research, and 'slow the spread' programs. 


Ecological Impacts


Gypsy moth invasions disrupt the ecological services provided by trees, impact wildlife habitat and reduce food production for dependent species. The dieback of twigs and branches due to defoliation causes canopy thinning, thereby weakening trees.

Gypsy moth invasions are capable of affecting forest tree composition. It is a concern that gypsy moth might affect the oak regeneration success in eastern North America, given that oak species are one of the preferred hosts by the gypsy moth.

 

Photo: Tim Tigner, Virginia Department of Forestry, Bugwood.org

Tree mortality caused by gypsy moth 


Social Impacts

Direct skin contact with gypsy moth caterpillar hairs could result in a rash and/or skin irritation. On a recreational level, defoliated trees and thinned canopies degrade the aesthetic value of trees.

 

Manage

Gypsy moth management strategies are either intended for immediate control of gypsy moth populations during outbreaks where it is established to minimize the impact, or long-term strategy methods intended to prevent the introduction and spread of gypsy moth to new areas.

In areas where gypsy moth is established, integrative pest management techniques such as burlap banding and pheromone traps are used to keep the gypsy moth population suppressed and at a manageable level. Detection traps using pheromone lures are often used as means to define the extent of gypsy moth spread over an area or where it may still exist after a treatment has taken place. Pheromone traps are also used in combination with other management methods for suppression and eradication of gypsy moth populations. In addition, education is important because the cooperation of the public can play an important role in slowing or preventing the spread of gypsy to new areas. Finally, pathway regulation and phytosanitary risk mitigation measures such as establishing quarantines can help slow the spread of gypsy moth.


Detect

Detection surveys such as pheromone-based trapping can provide information about the status of gypsy moths in Canada and the U.S. These surveys determine whether the gypsy moth is present, absent, in restricted distribution, widespread, or eradicated in a given area. This data is available on the CFIA website.  


Respond & Control


Mechanical
Small scale gypsy moth populations can be managed mechanically through:

  • Scraping and destroying egg masses.

  • Applying burlap and sticky barrier bands to trunks of potential host trees.

Both techniques are used to keep the gypsy moth population suppressed and at a manageable level.

Chemical
In Canada, Btk (Bacillus thuringiensis) bacterium spray treatment has been used to control the gypsy moth where established on public trees prior to egg hatch, as it is only poisonous to the larvae.

 

        Photo: John Ghent, John Ghent, Bugwood.org 

Biological
Entomophaga maimaigi is a target species specific fungus that infects gypsy moth populations in their native range in Japan. It had been introduced in the United States and had caused mass mortality for gypsy moth populations where established. Infections are more likely to spread in a wet spring, than in any other season.

Nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) is a virus that only affects gypsy moth. NPV occurs naturally but only in large gypsy moth populations. The virus severely damages the internal organs of gypsy moth caterpillars, thereby killing them. This was used in Canada to develop the biological pesticide, Dispavirus.

 

Photo: John Ghent, Bugwood.org

Typical position of gypsy moth larvae infected with NPV

 

Resources

Resources

Aukema, J.E., Leung, B., Kovacs, K., Chivers, C., Britton, K.O., Elgin, J., Frankel, S.J., Haight, R.H., Holmes, T.P., Leibhold, A.M., McCullough, D.G., Von Holle, B.(2011). Economic Impacts of Non-Native Forest Insects in the Continental United States. PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024587.           

Bigsby, K.M., Ambrose, M.J., Tobin, P.C., & Sills, E.O. (2014). The cost of gypsy moth sex in the city. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 13(3), 459-468.

CFIA.(2015). Appendix 1: List of North American Gypsy Moth Infested or Suspected Infested Areas of Canada and the United States. Retreived from http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-pests-invasive-species/directives/forestry/d-98-09/appendix-1/eng/1343832991660/1343834043533 on 15-09-2016

CFIA.(2016).Lymantria dispar (Gypsy moth) - Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-pests-invasive-species/insects/gypsy-moth/fact-sheet/eng/1330355335187/1335975909100 on 26-09-2016

CFIA. (2016). Plant Health Regulated Area: Forest Pests in Canada 2015-2016. Retrieved from http://www.inspection.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-plants-vegetaux/WORKAREA/DAM-plants-vegetaux/images-images/plan_for_firewood_map_1468247093674_eng.jpg on 26-09-2016

Collins, J. European Gypsy Moth. Entomology at The University of Kentucky.  Retrieved from https://entomology.ca.uky.edu/ef425 on 12-09-2016

Global Invasive Species Database.(2016). Species profile: Lymantria dispar.Retrieved from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=96 on 22-09-2016.

Government of Canada.(2013). Gypsy Moth. Retrieved from http://www.inspection.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-plants-vegetaux/WORKAREA/DAM-plants-vegetaux/images-images/plan_for_firewood_map_1468247093674_eng.jpg on 26-09-2016

Gray, D.R. (2004). The gypsy moth life stage model: Landscape-wide estimates of gypsy moth establishment using a multi-generational phenology model. Ecological Modelling, 176(1-2), 155-171.

 Halton Region. (2008). Btk for Control of Gypsy Moth. Retireved from http://www.halton.ca/cms/One.aspx?portalId=8310&pageId=18101#Q1 on 26-09-2016

 Humble, L. & Stewart, A.J. (1994). Gypsy Moth: Forest Pest Leaflet. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved from http://web.forestry.ubc.ca/fetch21/Z-PDF-pest-info-folder/gypsy%20moth%2075.pdf on 19-09-2016

 Invasive Species Compendium. (2016) .Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth). Retrieved from  http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/31807 on 26-09-2016

Michigan State University Extension. (2001). Entomophaga maimagia: a natural enemy of gypsy moth Retrieved from http://www.otsego.org/msue/bulletins/E2604.pdf on 18-10-2016

Morin, R.S. Liebhold, A.M., Gottschalk, K.W., Twardus, D.B., Acciavatti, R.E., White, R.L., Horsley, S.B., Smith, W.D., Luzader, E.R. (2001).  Forest Health Conditions on the Allegheny National Forest (1989-1999): Analysis of Forest Health Monitoring Surveys. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Protection NA Technical Report NA-TP-04-01.

Natural Resources Canada. (2015). Gypsy Moth. Retrieved from https://tidcf.nrcan.gc.ca/en/insects/factsheet/9506 on 12-09-2016

Nealis, V.G. & S. Erb.(1993). A Sourcebook for Management of the Gypsy Moth. Canadian Forest Service Publication. Catalogue No. Fo42- 193/1993E.

 OFAH/OMNR. (2012). Gypsy Moth. Retrieved from http://www.invadingspecies.com/invaders/forest/gypsy-moth/ on 13-09-2016

Ontario. (2016). Gypsy moth:Information about Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar dispar), a forest defoliating insect found in Ontario.Retrieved from https://www.ontario.ca/page/gypsy-mothon 12-09-2016

Pimentel, D., Larch, L., Zuniga R., Morrison, D.(1999). Environmental and Economic Costs Associated with Non-Indigenous Species in the United States. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University. Retrieved from http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Jan99/species_costs.html on 26-09-2016

Régnière, J., Nealis, V., & Porter, K. (2009). Climate suitability and management of the gypsy moth invasion into canada. Biological Invasions, 11(1), 135-148.

University of Wisconsin-Extension. (n.d.). Gypsy Moth in Wisconsin. Retrieved from http://fyi.uwex.edu/gypsymothinwisconsin/life-cycle-and-biology-3/life-cycle/ on 19-09-2016

 USDA. (n.d.). European Gypsy Moth. Retrieved from http://www.hungrypests.com/the-threat/european-gypsy-moth.php on 26-09-2016

USDA. (2010). Gypsy Moth in North America. Retrieved from http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/morgantown/4557/gmoth/world/  on 20-09-2016

USDA. (1995). Gypsy Moth Management in the United States: a cooperative approach. Retrieved from http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5448007.pdf on 26-09-2016